Mailloux, B.J. M.E. Fuller, G.F. Rose, T.C. Onstott, M.F. de Flaun, E. Alvarez, C. Hemingway, R. B. Hallet, T.J. Phelps and T. Griffin, 2003, "A Modular Injection System, Multilevel Sampler, and Manifold for Tracer Tests, "Ground Water 41:816-827.
Ground water injection and sampling systems were developed for bacterial transport experiments in both homogenous and heterogeneous unconsolidated, surficial aquifers. Two types of injection systems, a large single tank and a dynamic mixing tank, were designed to deliver more than 800 L of amended ground water to the aquifer over 12 hours, without altering the ground water temperature, pH, Eh, or dissolved gas composition. Two types of multilevel samplers (MLSs) were designed and installed. Permanent MLSs performed well for the homogenous surficial aquifer, but their installation procedure promoted vertical mixing, which could obfuscate experimental data obtained from vertically stratified, heterogeneous aquifers. A novel, removable MLS was designed to fit in 2- and 4-inch wells. Expandable O-rings between each sampling port hydraulically isolated each port for sample collection when a nut was tightened at the land surface. A low-cost vacuum manifold system designed to work with both MLS designs used 50 mL centrifuge tubes to efficiently sample 12 MLS ports with one peristaltic pump head. The integrated system was developed and used during four field campaigns over a period of three years. During each campaign, more than 3000 ground water samples were collected in less than one week. This system should prove particularly useful for ground water tracer, injection, and push-pull experiments that require high-frequency and/or high-density sampling.