Sabatini, Paul J., Dan G. Pass, and Robert C. Bachus, "Geotechnical Engineering Circular No. 4, Ground Anchors and Anchored Systems, " FHWA Publication No. FHWA-IF-99-015, pp. 281, 1999.
This document presents state-of-the-practice information on the design and installation of cement-grouted ground anchors and anchored systems for highway applications. The anchored systems discussed include flexible anchored walls, slopes supported using ground anchors, landslide stabilization systems, and structures that incorporate tiedown anchors. This document draws extensively from the FHWA-DP-68-IR (1988) design manual in describing issues such as subsurface investigation and laboratory testing, basic anchoring principles, ground anchor load testing, and inspection of construction materials and methods used for anchored systems. This document provides detailed information on design analyses for ground anchored systems. Topics discussed include selection of design earth pressures, ground anchor design, design of corrosion protection system for ground anchors, design of wall components to resist lateral and vertical loads, evaluation of overall anchored system stability, and seismic design of anchored systems. Also included in the document are two detailed design examples and technical specifications for ground anchors and for anchored walls.