February 9, 2021

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Jason Conder and Jennifer Arblaster Coauthored Article on Aquatic Toxicity Evaluations for Chemosphere

Jason Conder, Ph.D., (California) and Jennifer Arblaster (Vermont) coauthored an article entitled "Aquatic toxicity evaluations of PFOS and PFOA for five standard marine endpoints" for publication in Chemosphere on January 21, 2021.

Jason and Jennifer's coauthors were Nicholas Hayman, Gunther Rosen, and Marienne Colvin, Naval Information Warfare Center Pacific.

Jason Conder is a Principal Scientist based in California with more than 15 years of experience focused on risk assessment and contaminated sediments in contaminated site assessment and management, environmental toxicology, and ecological and human health risk assessment.

Jennifer Arblaster is a Project Scientist based in Vermont with eight years of experience in ecological and human health risk assessment, sediment site characterization, bioaccumulation modeling and evaluation of environmental quality criteria.

Chemosphere is an international journal designed for the publication of original communications as well as review articles on chemicals in the environment. Chemosphere, as a multidisciplinary journal, offers maximum dissemination of investigations related to all aspects of the identification, quantification, behavior, fate, toxicology, treatment, and remediation of chemicals in the bio-, hydro-, litho- and atmosphere.


Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are emerging contaminants that are coming under increasing scrutiny. Currently, there is a paucity of effects data for marine aquatic life, limiting the assessment of ecological risks and compliance with water quality policies. In the present study, the toxicity of perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) to four standard marine laboratory toxicity testing species, encompassing five endpoints, were evaluated: 1) 96-h embryo-larval normal development for the purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus); 2) 48-h embryo-larval normal development and normal survival for the Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis); 3) 96-h survival of opossum shrimp (Americamysis bahia); and 4) 24-h light output for the bioluminescent dinoflagellate Pyrocystis lunula. All species were tested using standard United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and/or American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) International protocols. For PFOS and PFOA, the order of species sensitivity, starting with the most sensitive, was M. galloprovincialis, S. purpuratus, P. lunula, and A. bahia. The range of median lethal or median effect concentrations for PFOS (1.1–5.1 mg L−1) and PFOA (10–24 mg L−1) are comparable to the relatively few toxicity effect values available for marine species. In addition to providing effects data for PFOA and PFOS, this study indicates these species and endpoints are sensitive to PFAS such that their use will be appropriate for deriving toxicity data with other PFAS in marine ecosystems.

More Information

About the article: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.129699
About Chemosphere: https://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/chemosphere
Learn more about Jason: https://www.geosyntec.com/people/jason-conder
Learn more about Jennifer: https://www.geosyntec.com/people/jennifer-arblaster