He has worked on client projects addressing an array of persistent contaminants, including chlorinated and non-chlorinated solvents, petroleum products, arsenic, and ammonia. Along with conceptual and detailed design, he also often serves as a technical specialist or peer reviewer for work performed by other consultants.
Noted for his design and installation of groundwater remediation systems that employ advanced solutions, Carl is a pioneer in the application of bioremediation for treating chlorinated solvents and metals, and the use of nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) for source treatment and groundwater remediation. He has extensive experience with the scale-up of developing technologies from laboratory to field. Some industry-first field implementations that he designed and performed are the largest, full-scale bioremediation site (in 2003); early nZVI injections; bioremediation of TCE DNAPL in crystalline bedrock; in situ biologically mediated precipitation of arsenic; the novel use of bioremediation for degrading carbon tetrachloride, 1,1-dichloroethene, 1,2-dichloroethane, and chloroform; and treatment of low-concentration ammonia in surface water. Carl also is experienced in the design and implementation of more traditional technologies, including soil vapor extraction, dual-phase extraction, and pump-and-treat systems, and has designed several vapor intrusion mitigation systems.
Carl frequently employs combinations of developing and standard technologies to create solutions to seemingly intractable issues, sometimes for contaminants that have plagued particular client sites for many years or for sites where remediation is considered infeasible. For instance, Carl has successfully treated high-concentration chlorinated solvents in deep bedrock at multiple sites. He also designed around the biological and implementation challenges posed by a site with TCE DNAPL located 250 feet into crystalline bedrock. His successful laboratory and then pilot test at this particular site demonstrated that the TCE could be fully treated in situ. This project was highlighted in the National Ground Water Association's Focus Conference on Fractured Rock and Eastern Groundwater Regional Issues.