Development of National Guidance Manual on Bioavailability Assessment in Sweden
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Risk assessment at contaminated sites in Sweden currently follows a methodology that includes the use of guideline values, which are not valid for a number of sites.

As an alternative to the use of guideline values, the use of a detailed site-specific approach requires an understanding of the bioavailability in soil and sediment. Since it is still very much unclear how bioavailability will be incorporated into the risk assessment process in Sweden, the Swedish EPA commissioned an international team of experts consisting of SWECO VIAK and Geosyntec Consultants to develop a guidance manual that provides general recommendations on how bioavailability should be implemented in the risk assessment process in Sweden and a focused recommendation on how to establish bioavailability factors for different chemicals in the Swedish model for guideline values. The project's anticipated outcome is an increased use of the bioavailability concept in risk assessment in Sweden, which should lead to more cost effective site remediation.

Geosyntec's Scope of Services

The Manual introduces stakeholders, authorities, consultants, and contractors to the scientific concepts of bioavailability, and presents a systematic protocol for inclusion of bioavailability in the human health risk assessment process for a given site in Sweden. Specifically, Geosyntec provided a general overview of the scientific principles of bioavailability as it relates to soil and human exposure pathways. It also provided the technical basis for how bioavailability is included in risk assessment in North America, largely based on the National Research Council and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency guidance on these topics.

Different methods that can be used to obtain the necessary data for establishing bioavailability factors for different chemicals are summarized. The manual presents numerous case studies where bioavailability was used in risk assessment in North America, and summarizes advances in risk communication in North America as they relate to bioavailability in risk assessment. The Manual is anticipated to be finalized in 2007 and will be available on the Naturvårdsverket website (

Notable Accomplishments

This first-of-its-kind guidance manual that Geosyntec co-authored is an important step in Sweden’s ability to cost-effectively manage and remediate its industrial sites with contaminated soils and sediments.

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Project Summary

  • Location: Sweden
  • Client: SWECO VIAK AB
  • Project Practice Areas: Contaminated Sites
  • Type of Facility: Disposal site
  • Services Provided: Project direction, Detailed guidance manual preparation
  • Type of Work: Guidance manual development
  • Governing Regulation: Federal and Local